The Clean Combustion SystemTM (CCS) technology concept was originally conceived at Rockwell International in Canoga Park, California.
The process evolved from theoretical combustion modeling developed to aid in the design analysis of large rocket engines for NASA's “Moon Program”.
When the model was applied to combustion of coal, it predicted the feasibility of simultaneous control of SO2 and NOx emissions by simply preventing their formation in the combustion process.
This led to a progression of R&D tests, development programs and to a field demonstration operation:
- Conceptual scale (0.5x106 Btu/hr.) at six-atmospheres pressure – one year
- Pilot scale (25x106 Btu/hr. – 1 ton/hr. of coal), with Utility consortium sponsored testing with Midwest and Western coals, 7 years
- Industrial Field Demonstration (50x106 Btu/hr. – 3 ton/hr. burner) located at Cold Lake, Canada firing Western sub bituminous coal
Throughout this period, the combustion process, and the engineering and equipment and materials of design were extensively peer reviewed by combustion specialists, researchers, Utility sponsors and boiler / burner manufacturers. Much of this early work was guided and funded by a consortium of utilities including:
- Southern California Edison
- Houston Light & Power
- Niagara Mohawk
- Wisconsin Public Service
- TransAlta Utilities
The work was maintained proprietary without public disclosure and consequently, very few details were reported to industry.
LNS-CAP Facility - Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada
TransAlta Resources Investment Corporation, the non-regulated subsidiary of TransAlta Utilities of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, initiated an industrial scale demonstration called the Low NOx/SOx - Coal Applications Pilot (LNS-CAP) Project at the heavy oil recovery facility of the ESSO Resources Cold Lake - Mahihkan site in Alberta. The $12.2 million LNS-CAP project was sponsored by:
- Department of Western Economic Diversification
- Alberta Office of Coal Research and Technology
- ESSO Resources Canada Ltd.
- Shell Canada Ltd.
- Alberta Power Ltd.
- TransAlta Resources Investment Corporation
- Fording Coal
The field demonstration confirmed the CCS technology with excellent emissions performance and safe, stable long-term operation, as well as verified the engineering design approach, hardware and materials of construction. The Canadian project operated for about 18 months and was dismantled at end of project funding.
Field demonstrated CCS emissions performance
on Western low-sulfur type Powder River Basin coals
- SO2 < 0.2 lb./106 Btu (< 105ppm)
- NOx < 0.15 lb./106 Btu (< 110ppm)
- High combustion efficiency
- High Carbon Burn out (LOl < 0.1%)
- Near-Zero SO3 Emissions
(30 MWT 5 T/h Coal)
- Reduce operating cost by half (switch to low-cost high-sulfur Illinois coal – 2.5 lb. SO2/mmBtu)
- Construction Permit w/waiver NSPS, PSD; no NSR
Project Initiated: Oct 2005
Commissioning: Jan 2007
CLEC Scope: Design & Engineering
- Supply all equipment, hardware, electrical, instrumentation / controls
- Commercial Warrantee & License
- Site Construction
- Commissioning & Start-up
- Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity
- Illinois Clean Coal Institute
- Illinois Office of Coal Development
For more information, request a copy of the paper:
"Operating Experience of a Coal-Fired Boiler Retrofit with an Advanced Hybrid of Coal Gasification for SO2 & NOx Emissions Control and Reduced Operating Cost"